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According to the early literature, the dried leaves and flowers of this plant constitute the drug Gaozaban, which was imported from Iran


Found abundantly in Northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir up to 3,500 - 4,500 meters in height.

Morphology Description (Habit)

The stem is simple, hairy, arising from a cluster of radical leaves, which are lanceolate and with conspicuous hairy pallid bases. The leaves are with evident veins. The cauline leaves are lanceolate. The flowers are blue or purple, trumpet-shaped, in dense, silky, glomaerate clusters. The nut-lets are grey, coarsely rugose and tuberculate.


No adverse effect was reported on use of this plant as medicine.


The drug is used as tonic, alterative, demulcent, diuretic and is considered cooling. It is useful as a spasmolytic.